(1822 - 1895)
Ingeniero español. Miembro fundador de la Real Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de la Habana, en 1861, donde presentó la mayor parte de los resultados de la labor de investigación realizada durante su residencia en Cuba.
1899 - 1959 The Neocolonial Period
Page 1 2

Despite funding was scarce, but thanks to the truly devoted staff working at the Station, it accomplished very significant results in several areas, such as rescuing the original variety of Cuban tobacco, called havanensis, which was initially carried out under the direction of Juan Tomás Roig (1877-1971), who also studied Cuban medicinal plants and conducted many other pieces of research on economic botany and became one of the best known and acknowledged Cuban scientists in his country. The new varieties of corn, which were obtained through over-20-year-long work done by the geneticist Carlos González del Valle, were successfully introduced in several Latin American countries (Venezuela and Peru, among them) and in the United States too, but were scarcely disseminated in Cuba. The development of biological control of an important citrus pest, by raising and introducing a small parasite wasp, turned out to be one of he main successes of biological control worldwide. This work was directed by the American entomologist (who lived a good deal of his life in Cuba ) Stephen Cole Bruner. Similar success was achieved in 1957 by the Cuban engineer Julián Acuña, a pupil of Roig and Bruner, when he determined the viral nature and the transmitting insect of a rice disease, which had international repercussion too. These are just some of the many achievements of this institution, which by the mid-20 th century - thanks to its staff - was already one of the main ones of its kind in Latin America .

Though, since the early century, such important figures as Juan Guiteras Gener (1852-1925), an outstanding Cuban epidemiologist, had been doing important work on the study of transmissible diseases, the Cuban government established an institution for these studies only in 1927: the Finlay Institute. This institution contributed to public health administration in Cuba and to training the medical staff but, as regards scientific research, only the work of the pathologist Wilhelm H. Hoffmann was remarkable. Hoffman had been the primary physician of the general staff of the German army and settled in Cuba in 1920, upon an invitation from Juan Guiteras. Hoffmann determined the existence of endemic yellow fever areas in Africa and South America , as well as several pathological signs of this disease.

Another distinguished Cuban epidemiologist, who was a consultant for several foreign institutions, was Mario A. García-Lebredo (better known as Mario G. Lebredo), but the most outstanding figure in this specialty was Pedro Kourí (1900-1964), the founder of the Institute of Tropical Medicine within Havana University. Kourí made noteworthy contributions to parasitology. This institution was, in fact, a small lab from where Kourí edited a journal that enjoyed certain international recognition. There too, he produced several new medicines against the parasites he had studied. His Lessons on Parasitology and Tropical Medicine , which came out first in 1940, was edited several times (the editions being written together with his collaborators Basnuevo and Sotolongo) and used as a reference work in several countries.

Social studies attained some development; they were represented by the predominant figure of Fernando Ortiz (1881-1969), whose work encompassed fields as diverse as history, ethnology, linguistics and sociology. Some have considered him "the third discoverer of Cuba ". Among his most important works are The Black Slaves (1916), Cuban Argument between Tobacco and Sugarcane (1940), The Instruments of the Afro-Cuban Music (5 volumes, 1952-1955), and History of a Cuban Fight Against Demons (1959). Ortiz also founded several scientific societies and journal and was a constant developer of cultural endeavors. In many respects, he was the emblematic figure of social sciences in Cuba during this period.

Other important researchers in the field of history were Ramiro Guerra (1880-1970), the founder of a trend in economic history and writer of such influential works as Sugar and Population in the Antilles (1927), The Territorial Expansion of the United States (1935), Handbook on Cuban History (1938, with several further editions), and Ten Years War (2 volumes, 1950, 1952). He was the main editor and inspirer of History of the Cuban Nation (1952, 10 volumes). We must also highlight the activity of Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring (1889-1964), the historian of Havana City, organizer of 13 national congresses on history from 1942-1960, founder of several serial publications, and author of History of the Platt Amendment , an Interpretation of the Cuban Reality (2 volumes, 1935, 1937) and The United States against Free Cuba (4 volumes, 1959), among many other titles. Since 1910, there was a National Academy of History that performed an important editorial task.

During the First Intervention and the first years of the Republic, and even years later, Cuba was the proving ground for several American technologies, while American companies became increasingly consolidated in their possession of the main services in the country, based on the use of electric technologies. Some these services are worth mentioning: a great extension of the telegraphic network (since 1899), the introduction of electric streetcars (1901), the establishment of long-distance telephony and the virtual telephony monopoly in Cuba by the Cuban Telephone Company (1909), commercial radiotelegraphy (wireless telegraphy) (1905), radio (1922) and television (1950) broadcasting. However, according to the so-called Truslow Mission sent to Cuba by the World Bank in 1950, there was not even a single laboratory for technological research in the country.

Página 1 2