(1860 - 1912)
Médico. Su obra científica en el campo de la Urología lo consagra como uno de los más importantes especialistas de esa disciplina a escala mundial. Innovó y perfeccionó la técnica instrumental, contribuyendo a preservar la salud de pacientes con afecciones renales.
From 1959 Onwards The Revolutionary Period
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Another important service is the seismic one, created within the Geophysics Institute (currently the Geophysics and Astronomy Institute) of the Academy. Though seismology has not progressed enough internationally to forecast earthquakes, it does allow warning on a more serious danger in certain zones and during certain more or less long periods. In Cuba , there are several regions undergoing certain seismic activity.

Also in the field of social research and humanities was a network of institutions created. Regarding philosophy, special mention is deserved by the current Philosophy Institute, which in 1976 published the work Methodology of Scientific Knowledge in collaboration with Soviet scholars on this topic, conducted methodological seminars, and researched the history of philosophical thinking in Cuba . In the eighties, remarkable research in the field of dialectical logics and axiology was done by Zaira Rodríguez (1940-1985). Also, philosophical research has been developed in other institutions such as the Philosophy and History Faculty of Havana University, and the Central University ( Santa Clara ), among others.

As for history of Cuba, several of the former functions of the Academy of History were transferred in 1962 to the History Institute (to which the National Archive - founded in 1840 - was attached), which was directed by Julio Le Riverend (1912-1998), one of the editors of the History of the Cuban Nation (1952), who made important original studies on the history of agrarian structures in Cuba. In addition, the Institute of History of the Communist Movement and the Socialist Revolution in Cuba was created; it was directed by the well-known communist leader Fabio Grobart. This institute published a History of the Cuban Working Movement (1985, 2 vols.). In 1987, the two institutes mentioned above (not including the National Archive) and some others were grouped into an Institute of History of Cuba , whose goal was to elaborate an updated National History , three out of its five anticipated volumes having already been published.

Several historians, who had been active since previous years, carried out a significant part of their work in this period. Among them, we must mention José Luciano Franco (1891-1988), the biographer of several outstanding black figures in the history of Cuba , an expert in slave rebellions, and one of the editors of the National History of Africa , which was made by UNESCO. Fernando Portuondo (1903-1975) and Hortensia Pichardo (1904-2001), his wife, thoroughly studied the life of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, the Father of Our Homeland, and published important textbooks and collections of documents. Raúl Cepero Bonilla (1020-1962), in his book Sugar and Abolition (1959), proposed an objective criticism of the apologetic historiography of the Creole "patricianship" previous to the Ten Years War. In some aspect of his work The Sugar Refinery (1964, 1978), Manuel Moreno Fraginals (1920-2001) followed the criticism line inaugurated by Cepero and showed the sugar slave plantation as a capitalist company. The outstanding historian and demographer Juan Pérez de la Riva (1913-1976) carried out a series of works, like those included in The Bunkhouse and Other Essays (1975), which constituted a meticulous correlated study of biographic, demographic, geographic and economic aspects.

Sergio Aguirre Carreras (1914-1993) continued his task of systematizing the historical presentation in terms of trends and periods. The noteworthy politician and economist Carlos Rafael Rodríguez (1913-1997) wrote several works of a historical nature, out of them stands the detailed socioeconomic analysis of the years from 1959- 1963 in his monograph Cuba in Its Transition to Socialism (1978).

Under Commander Ernesto "Che" Guevara's guidance, a series of institutes for technological research and development were organized and attached to the Ministry of Industries, which was headed by him. Commander Guevara had explained, in 1962, that the strategy for industrial development the country would follow would be focused on four directions: metallurgy, naval construction, electronics and sugarchemistry (the name under which he also included sugarcane derivatives). He also made reference to the need of developing mining (including oil) exploitation and the mechanical industry. So as to support this strategy, Guevara founded, from 1962 to 1963, the Cuban Institute for Mining and Metallurgy Research (ICIMM, which was later denominated CIPIMM "Center"), the Cuban Institute for Sugarcane Derivatives (ICIDCA), the Cuban Institute for Chemical Industry Development (ICIDIQ, later the Center for Chemical Research (CIQ)), and the Cuban Institute for Machinery Development (ICDM).

Other important institutions for technological research created through these years by other bodies were the Central Laboratory of Telecommunications (LACETEL), related to installing a satellite communications center in Cuba, two research groups that became, years later, the Institute of Mathematics, Cybernetics and Computing (IMACC) and the Institute for Fundamental Technical Research (ININTEF), respectively; which were later merged into the current Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics and Physics (ICIMAF). ININTEF introduced several state-of-the-art technologies (time and frequency patterns, holography, utrasonics, satellite remote sensing) in Cuba and initiated the theoretical-practical development of large-scale use of solar energy in Cuba, which task in 1984 was assigned to the Center for Solar Energy Research, created in Santiago de Cuba.