(1810 - 1896)
Zoólogo alemán. Su labor científica fue enorme en el campo de las investigaciones zoológicas. Sus aportes se plasmaron en obras sobre mamíferos, aves, insectos, reptiles y moluscos.
From 1959 Onwards The Revolutionary Period
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In 1964, the inauguration of "José Antonio Echeverría" University Campus (CUJAE) - which was built to comprise the different technological colleges of Havana University - remarkably contributed to fostering higher technological education and research development. In 1976, it was turned into "José Antonio Echeverría" Higher Polytechnic Institute (ISPJAE), independent from Havana University . As part of ISPJAE, laboratories for energetic and hydraulic research, among others, were built.

In 1969, the Institute of Nuclear Physics (later, the Institute for Nuclear Research, ININ) of the Academy of Sciences was founded. Thenceforth, research on this field started in Cuba . Afterwards, ININ was relocated, reorganized, and came to be the Center for Studies Applied to Nuclear Energy Development (CEADEN), in connection with the electronuclear program that was to be developed. In addition to the Institute, R + D (research and development) areas as well as a faculty to train nuclear engineers were created. In 1994, these institutions were attached to the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment.

Two technological programs initiated during these years had a singular repercussion: the sugarcane mechanization program, at the Ministry of Industries, and the computing manufacturing program, which started at Havana University .

The sugarcane mechanization program focused on three elements: using harvesting machines (combines) for sugarcane cutting, small cranes (lifting machines) to load cut sugarcane into carts and trucks, and machines to additionally clean "lifted" sugarcane (stockpiling centers). The design and construction of lifting machines and stockpiling centers progressed much more rapidly than the creation of combines, which ran into many technical difficulties until, in 1970 approximately, the group directed by the Cuban engineer Roberto Henderson managed to design and build a very effective machine for green sugarcane cutting, which was called "Liberator". Later on, a Cuban-Soviet combine (the several KTP models) was designed and a factory to manufacture this equipment was installed in Holguín City . A time came when sugarcane harvest was around 70% mechanized.

The other program was the one for electronic computer manufacturing. In April 1970, a working group, under the direction of Engineer Orlando Ramos, built the first Cuban minicomputer. The computers manufactured in Cuba were named CID (after the Digital Research Center (Centro de Investigaciones Digitales, in Spanish) of Havana University , where such computers were designed) and produced - in their different models - in small series. The first model was CID 201. Up to 500 computers of CID 201B and CID 300/10 models came to be produced, and they were used in many institutions in the country. Through this and other steps, electronic industry development started, which was gradually leading to manufacturing of innovative devices for medical diagnosing and metrology, several of which have been internationally patented.

Also, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Academy of Sciences and Havana University created a series of new institutes for agricultural and livestock research, such as the sugarcane institute (INICA), the citrus institute, the plant health institute, the agricultural and livestock science institute (ICA), among others; while the Ministry of Public Health founded, in 1966, eight institutes for medical sciences (related to specialized hospitals). These institutes were as follows: Endocrinology; Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery; Neurology and Neurosurgery; Oncology and Radiobiology; Gastroenterology; Angiology; Hematology (currently, Hematology and Immunology); and Nephrology (which was organized in 1963). These institutions remarkably contributed to increasing medical staff's knowledge, introducing new techniques and procedures, and improving the medical care system.

As a result of developing medical attendance of the population, in this period the following diseases, among others, were completely eradicated: poliomyelitis (1962), neonatal tetanus (1972), diphtheria (1979), measles (1993), rubella (1995), and parotitis (1995). Prenatal (including consulting on genetic diseases) and perinatal care contributed to infant mortality rate (in the first year of life) being, in 2004, 5.8 per 1,000 born alive, which lowest ratio in the American continent (except Canada ).

In order to create the conditions needed to develop research in different areas of biology and chemistry, the first steps were taken to organize a new research center. This goal was announced by Fidel Castro in a speech delivered on March 13, 1964. The institution founded according to this initiative was the National Center for Scientific Research (CNIC), which was created as a national autonomous entity by means of a presidential act of July 1, 1965.

CNIC was originally staffed by a small group of physicians that had graduated just a few years ago, who answered the call to dedicate themselves to biomedical research. Also was CNIC staffed by chemists and engineers of different specialties. The main goal of the center in its first years was to increase knowledge of "basic sciences" (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology) of these young medicine graduates, and initiate them into research tasks. To that effect, a series of courses and practices taught by Cuban and foreign professors was organized. After taking these courses, several young researchers won graduate scholarships to study in Western and Eastern European countries.