(1877 - 1971)
Botánico. Destacado científico que dedicó su vida a estudiar e interpretar la naturaleza cubana y a buscar nuevas fuentes de riquezas naturales; su mayor aporte a la ciencia lo constituyen sus estudios acerca de las plantas medicinales.
From 1959 Onwards The Revolutionary Period
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A remarkable result of biomedical research, which combined the efforts of several biomedical research institutions in Havana and in other provinces of the country, was the design and elaboration (using innovative and extraordinarily complex chemical procedures), which was culminated in 2004, of a conjugated polysaccharide synthetic vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae Type b, an organism causing the death of some 600 thousand children each year in Third World countries. This result, which was published that year in an issue of the journal Science , has been acknowledged as a true revolution in vaccine manufacturing round the world.

Also, the creation of scientific research institutions outside Havana and its outskirts has been encouraged. There are several agricultural and livestock research institutions in several provinces and, more recently, provincial scientific clusters that gather R+D institutes, higher education centers, and production and services enterprises in all provinces of the country. In several provinces (Villa Clara, Sancti Spiritus and Ciego de Ávila) there are biotechnological centers that are linked to the big centers in the capital but also meet territorial interests.

In addition to institutes for research, research-development or research-development-production, mass involvement of specialists and workers in the innovation movement has been encouraged. Science and technique fora, which are held at the levels of units, municipalities, provinces - until they culminate in a National Forum - incorporate members of the National Association of Innovators and Improvisers (ANIR) and the Youth Technical Brigades (BTJ) as well as specialists and researchers from science and technology entities. The same applies to the members of scientific societies who, without belonging to any of the above categories, participate actively or show an interest in the scientific and technological progress made in the country and the rest of the world. University students unincorporated into said institutions make up another important constituent. All these persons -- and there are hundreds of thousands of them -- can and should be considered as belonging to a larger community than the "scientific community" as such. This larger community is a most important factor to have science and technology disseminated and applied within the population of the country, as well as to generate new knowledge and new solutions.