(1923 - 1998)
Geógrafo, espeleólogo y arqueólogo. Primer Presidente de la Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Presidente fundador de la Federación Espeleológica de América Latina y el Caribe y de diversas sociedades científicas nacionales e internacionales.
Social Sciences and Humanities
2003 | Blockade: The longest economic besiege in history
Main executives entity: Center for Historical Research of the State Security
Main author: Andrés Zaldivar Diéguez

It is the main exit of a research about the economic war of the United States against Cuban Revolution. It assesses the evolution of previous blockades of ports and opposing costs in the new conceptions of economic war, which was supplemented with CIA's subversive activity, in an arsenal that was immediately used against Cuba since 1959.

It demonstrates that the measures against Cuban economy were articulated as integral part of each of the great subversive operations aimed at destroying the Revolution, in which espionage provided the informative supply for the design and execution of blockade measures, terrorism, sabotages, propagandistic actions, among others from the political-ideological sphere, which was complemented with other measures to the present day. The most important are Torricelli, Helms-Burton's Laws and other amendments. It concludes with the diplomatic battle in the United Nations.

It is rigurous in the information treatment, which is extense, appropriate and up-to-date. It is written in an interesting, coherent and accessible way for readers.

Its usefulness as historical and political document is undeniable for the synthesis that it makes on fundamental matters of Cuban history for more than 40 years, establishing causal relationships and offering categorical conclusions. It is the first time that this research task is carried out with that coherence and scientific rigor.

Its results have already been introduced in massive spreading organs of our country, in educational centers, in other organisms of the economic and legal sphere of the country, as well as in the MINREX that has used this book like matter of informative value for participants in international events, including the last and successful Session of the General Assembly of the UN.